Today, we are going to be treating the botanical name, definition, characteristics, varieties and botanical names of the varieties of Beans. Read through and gain at least one more thing today! So, let’s get started! What is Beans?
What is Beans?
A bean is the seed of one of several genera of the flowering plant family Fabaceae, which are used as vegetables for human or animal food. They can be cooked in many different ways, including boiling, frying, and baking, and are used in many traditional dishes throughout the world.
Physical Description of Beans
Most varieties of bean grow either as an erect bush or as a climbing plant, but a few important kinds are of intermediate form. Dwarf and semiclimbers are grown extensively. When the climbing type is grown for its immature seedpods, artificial supports are necessary to facilitate harvesting. Varieties differ greatly in size, shape, colour, and fibrousness or tenderness of the immature pods. In general, varieties grown for dry mature seeds produce pods that are too fibrous to be eaten at any state of development. Most edible-podded beans produce relatively low yields of mature seeds or have seeds that are of low eating quality. Seed colours range from white through green, yellow, tan, pink, red, brown, and purple to black in solid colours and countless contrasting patterns. Seed shapes range from nearly spherical to flattened, elongated, and kidney-shaped. Pods are of various shades of green, yellow, red, and purple and splashed with red or purple; pod shapes range from flat to round, smooth to irregular, and straight to sharply curved; length ranges from 75 to 200 mm (3 to 8 inches) or more.
As with other legumes, beans have a symbiotic association with nitrogen-fixing bacteria and can be rotated with nitrogen-intensive crops such as cereals to improve soil conditions.
Botanical Description of Beans
A pluriannual species of great vegetative vigour with stems of several metres (only in a few modern cultivars are their shrubby forms) which emerge from a fleshy root. P. coccineus is easily distinguished by: its large seeds (the weight of 100 seeds is 80 to 170 g and 6 to 12 g for the wild form) and small, narrow, elliptical hilum; and its large influorescences (20 cm and in excess of 20 fruit-bearing stems) with scarlet, white or, more rarely, two-colour flowers. It carries out hypogeal germination, has a fleshy root which is divided and generally fusiform and which allows cotyledonary young shoots to resprout over several consecutive years. It flowers 50 days after sowing. with early varieties, or at the start of the rains, and continues to produce flowers over a long period, except in the shrubby varieties. In the majority of cases P. coccineus undergoes cross-pollination. assisted by its extrorse stigma and nectaries and through the action of bees and hummingbirds. Thus far, it is considered self compatible.
The seed of wild varieties is dispersed through explosive dehiscence of the pods during the dry period. In some wild populations there is a short latency; the seed’s viability in natural conditions does not exceed three years.
Botanical Name of Beans
The botanical name of Beans is Phaseolus vulgaris.
Taxonomic Tree of Beans
Species: P. vulgaris
Varieties of Beans and their botanical names
- Common beans – Phaseolus vulgaris
- Green beans – Phaseolus coccineus
- Tepary Beans – Phaseolus acutifolius
- Butter beans – Phaseolus lunatus
- Botil – Phaseolus polyanthus Greenman
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